The term Design means the design of an object that encompasses the criteria of functionality, aesthetics and industrial production.
The birth of Design dates back to the Industrial Revolution and to the consequent advent of mechanized production, events that led to the birth of the so-called industrial product. Specifically to the arts and crafts movement born in England in the nineteenth century, which determined the development of the applied arts. This current of thought considered the artistic-creative process not something of an end in itself, but something that can be applied to the creation of common everyday objects. Thus conveying one of the main characteristics of artisan production to mass production.
During the twentieth century, the design of industrial products began to combine aesthetic appearance, usage functions and construction features in product development. Thus, modern design philosophies began to merge with the principles of mass production. A fundamental reference point for innovation in the field of Design and innovation related to rational and functional thinking was the Bauhaus school which operated in Germany between 1919 and 1933.
Especially after the Second World War, the designers, driven by the desire to start again and create a new future, revisited the concept of “living”, starting to design objects that changed the way people organize and live the spaces of everyday life.
But what is the design of a product? This is the result of the analysis of all the design characteristics that define the object. Aspects such as ergonomics, usability, pre-production, environmental impact, decommissioning, costs, choice of materials and their properties are studied.
The design therefore aims to create a product that is consistent from the point of view of the manufacturer and that of the user.
SOME DESIGN ICONS PRODUCED IN THE 20TH CENTURY
1. EGG CHAIR by Anne Jacobsen (1960)
Chair designed initially for the Hall of the Royal Hotel in Copenhagen. Its peculiarity is that of merging all the functional parts of a chair (seat, back and armrests), creating a protective cocoon that allows those who sit on it to assume numerous positions. Conceived with the ultimate aim of offering moments of relaxation.
2. PANTON CHAIR byVerner Panton (1960)
The Panton Chair was the first chair to be made from a single sheet of durable plastic. Its design aimed to follow the anatomy of the body. Its particular shape, but essential to the stellar time and the possibility of having it in different colors makes it suitable for different environments.
3. CITRUS JUICES JUICY SALIF di Philippe Starck (1988)
Made of die-cast and polished aluminum, this juicer is made up of a central body in the shape of an inverted drop and 3 legs, the final shape recalls the physiognomy of a spider. Its characteristic is the absence of the container to hold the liquid, it can be replaced directly from the glass.
4. ECLIPSE LAMP by Vico Magistretti (1965)
It is one of the most relevant industrial products of the twentieth century, as well as one of the symbols of Italian Design in the world. The characteristic of the lamp is already expressed in its name, in fact it reproduces the astronomical phenomenon: it is possible to obscure, as you wish, the light source by superimposing it by sliding a round and full body, thus regulating the luminous flux.
5. ARC LAMP by Achille e Piergiacomo Castiglioni (1962)
The design of this lamp is part of the Ready Made current of thought which played with the concept of the decontextualization of objects. The Arco lamp allows you to have a “suspended” light point above the place of interest without being tied to a suspension lighting system, unlike this it can in fact be transported.
6. CORKSCREW ANNA G. by Alessandro Mendini (1994)
The peculiarity of this corkscrew is given by the fact that it represents a female figure, with a smiling face, a slender profile and a fun look that recalls Venetian clothes. This physiognomy was intended to be a tribute to the woman. Today is one of those collectible corkscrews we told you about here.
7. MOKA BIALETTI by Alfonso Bialetti (1933)
Designed in 1933, Bialetti’s Moka has changed the Italian coffee tradition and is today the undisputed symbol of the ritual of coffee and made in Italy. Its forms are inspired by the figurative tradition of Art Decò. It is a real design object, just think that the practical spout was designed for double functionality: pouring the drink once ready and spreading the aroma throughout the home, practicality and sensory aesthetics that meet in a kitchen item.
8. TYPEWRITER by Camillo Olivetti (1908)
The iconic typewriter designed by Camillo Olivetti. The first version dates back to the early twentieth century, the M1, but it was with the M20 that Olivetti managed to beat the competition by focusing on product quality. With the transfer of the company to his son Adriano, Olivetti starts from typewriters to create its success in the office equipment (calculators and billing) and information technology (computers) sector, becoming the important business reality that everyone we know.
9. [:it]CALENDARIO PERPETUO TIMOR DANESE di Enzo Mari (1967)PERPETUAL CALENDAR DANISH TIMOR by Enzo Mari (1967)
This calendar has pvc bands that can be opened like a fan, allowing you to “extract from the deck” day and number of the month. One of the peculiarities of this object is the fact that it has the characteristics of modularity, flexibility, washability and transformability typical of plastic which in the 1960s was a reference material for Italian designers. Plastic as a bearer of an idea of freedom, democracy and equality.